TABLE 2

Mean Position Errors Over Time and Over 10 Monte Carlo Runs, Across the Two Trajectories, Two IMU Grades, and Five Attack Levels (20 Scenarios in Total)

Results are also visually plotted in Figure 5. Each scenario is simulated over two Chimera epochs, i.e., 6 min in total. The first Chimera epoch has authentic GPS measurements only, and the erroneous, spoofed GPS measurements begin 60 s into the second Chimera epoch, i.e., 4 min after the simulation starts.

FilterIMUTraj.Tested Spoofing Acceleration Ramp Rate (m/s3)
10−25 · 10−310−35 · 10−410−4
Auth.SpoofedAuth.SpoofedAuth.SpoofedAuth.SpoofedAuth.Spoofed
NaivetacticalA0.531290.491150.5244.20.522.20.514.63
B0.511580.511390.553.00.5226.50.515.46
MEMSA0.541290.521160.5544.60.5322.40.544.63
B0.551580.541400.5553.10.5326.70.545.43
Odometry OnlytacticalA4.074.024.585.854.04.454.057.724.666.57
B7.9710.77.8113.213.311.89.5214.09.288.47
MEMSA20.630.521.640.222.727.018.932.215.329.0
B44.177.233.446.042.261.935.344.652.358.3
Authentic GPS OnlytacticalA0.534.420.492.920.523.160.52.630.514.32
B0.515.010.513.10.54.010.525.280.515.43
MEMSA0.549.770.5219.50.5513.50.5314.90.5416.9
B0.5514.90.5418.20.5519.00.5318.50.5418.3
Adaptive Meas. Cov. EstimationtacticalA0.6418.80.6521.50.8124.30.6617.90.594.54
B0.8830.80.7528.90.7726.20.6120.90.535.36
MEMSA0.5718.30.820.30.6328.00.5619.40.634.54
B0.5945.50.6942.40.6427.00.5620.90.575.33
Chi-Squared Detector Switching (FAR: 3 · 10−3)tacticalA0.535.981.294.360.527.820.59.740.744.59
B1.398.030.517.790.57.970.528.541.065.46
MEMSA0.8914.40.5215.90.7417.82.2110.70.544.61
B0.5519.30.5420.60.559.940.5311.50.545.43
Chi-Squared Detector Switching (FAR: 10−6)tacticalA0.536.90.495.520.5213.00.511.00.514.63
B0.5110.70.519.90.511.10.5212.00.515.46
MEMSA0.5417.30.5214.70.5518.70.5311.20.544.63
B0.5524.60.5425.10.5513.40.5315.10.545.43
Kalman Gain scallngtacticalA0.534.50.482.970.523.830.57.230.514.14
B0.54.90.54.480.495.350.525.60.524.99
MEMSA0.559.330.5211.70.568.750.5310.30.534.24
B0.5411.70.5315.30.557.310.537.80.545.21
Spoofing-Resilient (Huber)tacticalA0.531030.4992.90.5238.80.521.00.54.59
B0.511290.511140.4947.10.5225.30.515.42
MEMSA0.541090.5298.30.5540.30.5321.50.544.6
B0.551320.531170.5547.80.5325.50.545.4
Spoofing-Resilient (Tukey)tacticalA0.682.790.622.440.661.930.682.210.62.02
B0.632.930.62.670.653.560.682.560.662.08
MEMSA0.717.840.6813.10.714.220.655.060.652.65
B0.6911.60.6414.10.675.120.675.230.683.88
Spoofing-Resilient (Hampel)tacticalA0.563.30.521.880.572.640.534.320.543.95
B0.533.280.543.520.524.010.553.960.544.95
MEMSA0.588.00.5711.40.585.940.578.110.574.17
B0.5815.30.5613.50.596.280.556.180.595.01