TABLE 2

Mean Absolute Positioning Error Along the North, East, and Down Directions in the Estimate of the WLS Baseline and Variations of our Approach

ScenarioNorth (m)East (m)Down (m)
WLS baseline11.6 ± 51.99.7 ± 38.736.4 ± 265.9
Our approach with η = 30 m11.1 ± 10.29.3 ± 8.59.3 ± 7.5
Our approach without data augmentation7.1 ± 5.76.0 ± 5.16.6 ± 5.1
Our approach with η = 15 m6.4 ± 5.25.9 ± 5.06.2 ± 4.9
  • Note: The variations at hand include NED corrections + η = 30 m, NED corrections + η = 30 m without data augmentation, and NED corrections + η = 15 m. We can observe that a smaller initialization range results in smaller position estimate errors, data augmentation improves performance on the testing data set, and that final positioning errors were significantly less than those of WLS estimates in the down direction for all cases.