TABLE 1

Mean Absolute Error in Position Along Each Direction for Different Simulated Sensor Error Characteristics

ScenarioNorth (m)East (m)Down (m)
Initialization7.5 ± 5.07.5 ± 5.07.5 ± 5.0
Gaussian error2.6 ± 2.02.4 ± 1.82.2 ± 1.6
Gaussian + bias error2.8 ± 2.12.6 ± 2.02.4 ± 1.8
  • Note: In both scenarios, our approach reduced the positioning error over the baseline with random initialization by more than half the value.